In this paper, we investigate out-of-vocabulary (OOV) word recovery in hybrid automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, with emphasis on dynamic vocabulary expansion for both Weight Finite State Transducer (WFST)-based decoding and word-level RNNLM rescoring. We first describe our OOV candidate generation method based on a hybrid lexical model (HLM) with phoneme-sequence constraints. Next, we introduce a framework for efficient second pass OOV recovery with a dynamically expanded vocabulary, showing that, by calibrating OOV candidates’ language model (LM) scores, it significantly improves OOV recovery and overall decoding performance compared to HLM-based first pass decoding. Finally we propose an open-vocabulary word-level recurrent neural network language model (RNNLM) re-scoring framework, making it possible to re-score ASR hypotheses containing recovered OOVs, using a single word-level RNNLM ignorant of OOVs when it was trained. By evaluating OOV recovery and overall decoding performance on Spanish/English ASR ‘tasks, we show the proposed OOV recovery pipeline has the potential of an efficient open-vocab word-based ASR decoding framework, with minimal extra computation versus a standard WFST based decoding and RNNLM rescoring pipeline.