BOLT: A Practical Binary Optimizer for Data Centers and Beyond

International Symposium on Code Generation and Optimization (CGO)


Performance optimization for large-scale applications has recently become more important as computation continues to move towards data centers. Data-center applications are generally very large and complex, which makes code layout an important optimization to improve their performance. This has motivated recent investigation of practical techniques to improve code layout at both compile time and link time. Although post-link optimizers had some success in the past, no recent work has explored their benefits in the context of modern data-center applications.

In this paper, we present BOLT, a post-link optimizer built on top of the LLVM framework. Utilizing sample-based profiling, BOLT boosts the performance of real-world applications even for highly optimized binaries built with both feedback-driven optimizations (FDO) and link-time optimizations (LTO). We demonstrate that post-link performance improvements are complementary to conventional compiler optimizations, even when the latter are done at a whole-program level and in the presence of profile information. We evaluated BOLT on both Facebook data-center workloads and open-source compilers. For datacenter applications, BOLT achieves up to 7.0% performance speedups on top of profile-guided function reordering and LTO. For the GCC and Clang compilers, our evaluation shows that BOLT speeds up their binaries by up to 20.4% on top of FDO and LTO, and up to 52.1% if the binaries are built without FDO and LTO.

Related Publications

All Publications

MLPerf Inference Benchmark

Vijay Janapa Reddi, Christine Cheng, David Kanter, Peter Mattson, Guenther Schmuelling, Carole-Jean Wu, Brian Anderson, Maximilien Breughe, Mark Charlebois, William Chou, Ramesh Chukka, Cody Coleman, Sam Davis, Pan Deng, Greg Diamos, Jared Duke, Dave Fick, J. Scott Gardner, Itay Hubara, Sachin Idgunji, Thomas B. Jablin, Jeff Jiao, Tom St. John, Pankaj Kanwar, David Lee, Jeffery Liao, Anton Lokhmotov, Francisco Massa, Peng Meng, Paulius Micikevicius, Colin Osborne, Gennady Pekhimenko, Arun Tejusve Raghunath Rajan, Dilip Sequeira, Ashish Sirasao, Fei Sun, Hanlin Tang, Michael Thomson, Frank Wei, Ephrem Wu, Lingjie Xu, Koichi Yamada, Bing Yu, George Yuan, Aaron Zhong, Peizhao Zhang, Yuchen Zhou

ISCA - May 22, 2020

RecNMP: Accelerating Personalized Recommendation with Near-Memory Processing

Liu Ke, Udit Gupta, Benjamin Youngjae Cho, David Brooks, Vikas Chandra, Utku Diril, Amin Firoozshahian, Kim Hazelwood, Bill Jia, Hsien-Hsin S. Lee, Meng Li, Bert Maher, Dheevatsa Mudigere, Maxim Naumov, Martin Schatz, Mikhail Smelyanskiy, Xiaodong Wang, Brandon Reagen, Carole-Jean Wu, Mark Hempstead, Xuan Zhang

ISCA - May 22, 2020

DeepRecSys: A System for Optimizing End-To-End At-Scale Neural Recommendation Inference

Udit Gupta, Samuel Hsia, Vikram Saraph, Xiaodong Wang, Brandon Reagen, Gu-Yeon Wei, Hsien-Hsin S. Lee, David Brooks, Carole-Jean Wu

ISCA - May 22, 2020

Fast Dimensional Analysis for Root Cause Investigation in a Large-Scale Service Environment

Fred Lin, Keyur Muzumdar, Nikolay Laptev, Mihai-Valentin Curelea, Seunghak Lee, Sriram Sankar

ACM SIGMETRICS - June 8, 2020

To help personalize content, tailor and measure ads, and provide a safer experience, we use cookies. By clicking or navigating the site, you agree to allow our collection of information on and off Facebook through cookies. Learn more, including about available controls: Cookies Policy